Cardioid microphone definition photography

Several different microphones have been designed throughout the years to accomplish very different tasks. Some — such as condenser microphones — pick up a great deal of sound from several directions, while others pick up one focused sound only from one direction.

Of this latter group, the cardioid microphone is perhaps the most popular, as it picks up almost exclusively the desired sound while ambient noise is hardly noticeable. It gets its name because of its pattern of sensitivity, which is roughly shaped like a heart when drawn out on an axis. This means that most of the sound it picks up comes from the front of the microphone, while minimal noise is picked up from the rear and only marginal noise is picked up from the sides. This type of sensitivity pattern makes the cardioid microphone useful in many situations, including those in which several mics are being used at one time, live performances, and certain recording purposes.

It may be a condenser microphone, which uses a capacitor system to pick up sound, or a dynamic microphone, which uses a coil attached to a diaphragm. When the diaphragm vibrates, it moves the coil, which then creates electromagnetic induction.

As a unidirectional microphone — that is, one that picks up sound from only one direction — this microphone is designed to pick up one sound well, with other ambient noises fading into the background.

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If this microphone still doesn't do enough to eliminate ambient noise for a user's purposes, the supercardioid microphone eliminates even more noise from directly behind the microphone.

The supercardioid mic is often confused with the hypercardioid microphone, which actually does not eliminate as much noise behind the microphone, but eliminates more to the sides.

Out of the three types, the hypercardioid is considered the most directional.

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For musical purposes, the cardioid microphone is particularly useful for live sound, such as concerts. It can also be used as a vocal mic for presentations, public address, and other situations that require a vocal mic. The style is also a good choice for recording concentrated sounds, such as vocals and certain types of drums. Other situations in which a cardioid mic may be used include household applications, such as in a telephone.

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The microphone in the handset picks up primarily the speaker's voice while eliminating other ambient noise, such as background conversation or television chatter. Please enter the following code:. Login: Forgot password?Do you keep coming across terms like cardioid or supercardioid? Microphone patterns, like the diagrams below, show the zones around the microphone where that mic picks up sound well and where it does not pick up sound at all.

Depending on your needs, you might need a mic that only picks up sound from a source directly in front of it and blocks out sound coming from all other directions. A mic like this might be great for a singer performing live on stage for example. Whatever your needs, there is a mic or a combination of mics that will meet those needs. But you need to know the different pickup patterns for mics and what their best uses are, before you can decide on the right one.

The following polar pickup patterns are the five most common ones you will encounter. The cardioid pattern is the most common unidirectional microphone pickup pattern. A microphone with a cardioid pickup pattern only picks up sound from sources located in front of the mic and minimizes any sounds coming from behind.

What Is A Cardioid Microphone?

This makes them great for studio recording, even in rooms with poor acoustics. And since cardioid mics pick up nothing from behind, you can easily place monitor speakers directly behind them and get no feedback. One of the best cardioid mics available is the TLM Microphones with cardioid polar patterns are perfect for a single sound source, like one singer or speaker.

They work especially well in these situations:. It picks up sounds in a very narrow range at the front and even less on the sides than a cardioid mic. It picks up some sound toward the rear, though. A supercardioid mic picks up sound directly in front and also some sound from the rear. A cardioid mic picks up nothing from the rear, but is not as narrowly focused toward the front. But, because it also captures sound in the rear, you have to be careful not to place monitoring speakers directly behind the mic, like you can with a regular cardioid mic.

The hypercardioid pattern takes the supercardioid one step further. It is even more focused toward the front, blocks out anything from the sides and picks up more sound from the rear. As such, a hypercardioid microphone is used mainly in loud environments where ambient noise needs to be blocked out.

Because the pickup zone is so narrow and it picks up more sound from the rear than other cardioid mics, special care needs to be taken with mic placement. More info on this pattern here.

cardioid microphone definition photography

Omnidirectional microphones, by definition, pick up sound from all directions equally. As a result, their polar patter is a perfect sphere. Obviously, this means you will pick up any sound in the environment. This makes for a very natural-sounding recording, and is great if you are trying to capture everything around you or a multitude of sources at once, like a complete orchestra. The omnidirectional microphone pattern is not well-suited for use with a single sound source, like one speaker or singer singing into the mic.

It would only make sense if you are purposely trying to capture every other sound in the environment along with the single source.

For that reason, cardioid mics are much more commonly used these days. What is an omnidirectional microphone used for? Basically, you use one when you want to capture every sound that is in the area. For example, if you are recording an entire orchestra or if you are recording drums in a drum room. The omni polar pattern is also good for talk shows or movie or TV sets where only one mic is in use, rather than each person having their own mic. A figure 8 mic pattern picks up sound equally from the front and the rear, but nothing from the sides.

The pattern basically looks like the number 8. At first glance, it would seem figure 8 mics are only used for duets, but how often do you see a duet where the signers are facing each other from opposite ends of a microphone?This is one of the most used microphones in home recording studio settings, no question about it.

Cardioid Mic : What is it? Everything you need to know

Any sounds coming from a source 90 degrees outside the axis are reduced in around 6dB. That translates into two times the distance of any sound coming from the front of the mic. But, sounds sent degrees from the pick up angle of the cardioid mic will seem as if they were ten times farther away. Know everything about this kind of microphone and understand the best ways to use it. Cardioid microphones are ideal for stage and close-mic settings, since they block leaks and undesired sounds.

When recording drums we must pay attention to some important details such as style and taste of the player. Every drummer has their own set up and the placing of the microphones on it has to fit that drum kit. It must follow the taste of the artist too. One way to do it is to put individual microphones on each drum: one on each tom, one or two on the snare, one for hi-hat and one on the bass drum. Cymbals are usually miked with two microphones above it — the overheads.

In other situations, you can use one microphone placed on the snare, another on the bass drum and the two overheads to pick up the whole kit. There are many configurations possible to record drums, in which the cardioid mic might be of great help.

In some cases you can even use a cardioid and a omnidirectional or a figure 8 microphone combined. A great technique for vocals or piano, for instance. Keep in mind that the description of cardioid is related to the polar pattern of the microphone only. Because the sensitive part of the capsule is shaped like a heart.

So, a cardioid microphone can also be a condenser microphone or a dynamic microphone. Any microphone has a set of characteristics that define its use, range and pick up qualities. The most important ones are:. In other words, the polar pattern is directionality.

Over the years, audio engineers have been combining omnidirectional with bidirectional patterns. That technique eventually led to the development of the cardioid mic. This is how it works: if the sound source is in the back of the microphone, the negative signal of the bidirectional cancels the positive signal of the omnidirectional.

As a result the pick up range gets even stronger. Speaking of unidirectional microphones, one important aspect is the movement of the sound source. Singers for example, tend to move quite a lot on stage or when holding the mic in studio.

What is a Cardioid Microphone?

Using a cardioid mic can cause significant impact on the final result of your work. And enables you to control the excess of movement of the vocalist. To be able to make cardioid microphones even more directional, developers created the super cardioid mic and the hyper cardioid mic. With these types of microphones the picking up area got more reduced, avoiding sounds created outside the capsule axis.Microphones can do similar things!

You enter the room, taking in the whole scene. But then again, we have a powerful signal processor between our ears! Simply put, microphones come with different pickup patterns for the lack of a brain. They are equally sensitive to sound from all directions. But they can also be very useful in the home studio; for instance, when you record acoustic guitar, percussion, or background vocals, or anything that sounds best with some room ambience.

In technical terms, a cardioid microphone is most sensitive to sound coming from the front. Sound from the sides is picked up somewhat quieter, and sound from the rear is greatly rejected. This is a somewhat weird way of listening which would be very hard to do for a human.

It is the equivalent of listening to two guys standing on either side of you while ignoring everything else. A microphone with a Figure-8 or bidirectional pickup pattern is sensitive to sound coming from the front and coming from the rear, but has a very high rejection for sound coming from the sides.

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This may not appear very useful to you, at first. Figure-8 happens to be the natural pattern of ribbon microphones, and most multipattern condensers can be set to figure Other than that, figure-8 microphones are pretty rare. Apart from the major patterns omni, cardioid, and figure-8, there are some varieties of the cardioid pattern, the best known being wide cardioid and super- or hypercardiod.

Wide cardioid is a mix of omni and cardioid, i.

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Wide cardioid is excellent for recording acoustic guitar and small vocal groups. Super- and hypercardioid are patterns in-between cardioid and figure-8, i. Their maximum cancellation is somewhat left and right to the rear, in an angle of about degrees to the front.

This can be useful in live situations. Hypercardioid microphones are also great for drums, e. The directionality of a microphone also has an effect on the so called proximity effect, i.

The proximity effect is what makes the DJ on the radio sound like Barry White.It can also be defined as an epicycloid having a single cusp. It is also a type of sinusoidal spiraland an inverse curve of the parabola with the focus as the center of inversion. The name was coined by de Castillon in [2] but had been the subject of study decades beforehand. A cardioid microphone exhibits an acoustic pickup pattern that, when graphed in two dimensions, resembles a cardioid any 2d plane containing the 3d straight line of the microphone body.

In three dimensions, the cardioid is shaped like an apple centred around the microphone which is the "stalk" of the apple. One gets the. A proof can be established using complex numbers and their common description as the complex plane. The rolling movement of the black circle on the blue one can be split into two rotations.

Hence the. See trigonometric functions. The proofs of these statement use in both cases the polar representation of the cardioid. For suitable formulas see polar coordinate system arc length and polar coordinate system area. Hence the cardioid has the polar representation. Remark: Not every inverse curve of a parabola is a cardioid. For example, if a parabola is inverted across a circle whose center lies at the vertex of the parabola, then the result is a cissoid of Diocles.

In the previous section if one inverts additionally the tangents of the parabola one gets a pencil of circles through the center of inversion origin. A detailed consideration shows: The midpoints of the circles lie on the perimeter of the fixed generator circle.

The generator circle is the inverse curve of the parabolas's directrix. A similar and simple method to draw a cardioid uses a pencil of lines. It is due to L. Cremona :. Hence any secant line of the circle, defined above, is a tangent of the cardioid, too:.

Remark: The proof can be performed with help of the envelope conditions see previous section of an implicit pencil of curves:. The considerations made in the previous section give a proof for the fact, that the caustic of a circle with light source on the perimeter of the circle is a cardioid.

Its parametric representation is.


The reflected ray is part of the line with equation see previous section. The following is true:. Hence a cardioid is a special pedal curve of a circle.

Inserting the point into the equation of the tangent yields. The evolute of a curve is the locus of centers of curvature. An orthogonal trajectory of a pencil of curves is a curve which intersects any curve of the pencil orthogonally. For cardioids the following is true:. The second pencil can be considered as reflections at the y-axis of the first one.

cardioid microphone definition photography

See diagram. That means: Any curve of the first pencil intersectcs any curve of the second pencil orthogonally. Choosing other positions of the cardioid within the coordinate system results in different equations. The picture shows the 4 most common positions of a cardioid and their polar equations. One application of this result is that the boundary of the central period-1 component of the Mandelbrot set is a cardioid given by the equation.

The Mandelbrot set contains an infinite number of slightly distorted copies of itself and the central bulb of any of these smaller copies is an approximate cardioid.As a singer, I have used countless mics, testing, and comparing them. Yet, I like cardioid mics among the different mics. This is because of its unidirectional polar pattern. But what is a cardioid microphone? Well, a cardioid microphone is like all other microphones because it picks up sounds.

The difference lies in the way it picks up sounds. From the front and both sides, it picks up sounds with high gain. But it picks up poorly the sound coming from the rear. Thus, it is good to use if you want to pick up the front and side sounds. This is because the mic will not pick up the noise created by your audience.

cardioid microphone definition photography

Features and Characteristics of Cardioid Microphone There are specific characteristics and features of cardioid microphones that are worth noting. First, it has a standard unidirectional polar pattern. Moreover, it is the most common mic used in studio, broadcasting, and stage. Plus, its sides are less sensitive to sounds.

It is around 6dB less sensitive at its two sides. It is as if you are very near the mic. Moreover, it shows excellent sound isolation. The Cardioid mic is also perfect for use if you are recording a single sound source.

This is because it exhibits the property of gain before feedback. Hence it is often used in near-coincident and coincident stereo way of utilizing mics. Moreover, it tends to become more directional as the sound frequencies increase. Yet, it is less directional with lower frequency sounds.

Plus, it works using the principle of pressure-gradient. If you want to test the gain of this mic, you can record sounds while rotating the microphone. Start rotating the cardioid mic from 0 to degrees. You will discover that as the mic rotates, the gain it records vary. This is because the mic is unidirectional. If you are going to look at the polar plot response of a cardioid mic, you will discover that it is shaped like a heart.

So, if you only want to pick up sounds from the front and sides, you should use cardioid mics. If you have a home studio, for example, you can use a cardioid mic to get rid of rear noise. It is very sensitive to those sounds that come on-axis, directly in the face of the microphone.But there's the Prinz Eugen, so t could happen. Weaknesses would be it's lacking long range AA, low number of secondaries, and, despite supercharges, still sporting just 8 15 inch guns at T8.

Guessing that she will also get a radar consumable due to being the last Battleship ever built (Jean Bart really doesn't count). For this reason, sources which quote HMS Vanguard as having gun ranges in excess of 32,000 yards (29,260 m) are somewhat misleading, as such a range would have required the use of super charges, which she never carried. She was a Franken-ship made from spare hull and guns, although she was built I think her strange construction could easily lend to creative balancing.

Honestly I think there would be a lot of hate for releasing Vanguard at tier 8 price tag and she didn't feel good to play. We dont need a tier 8 Krazny Krym. Maryland got more AA.

West Virginia got more AA, enhanced radar, thicker decks, better torpedo defenses, and so forth. In effect, she was a new ship built atop the old. With the right tweaks, such as more accurate guns and possibly radar, she would make a decent tier 8 premium. The low speed would be a major downside, but she would be very strong in other areas. I don't know if it will happen considering Alabama is coming and the number of US premiums already live. Something that can repair other ships as well.

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Yeah, we're getting the USS Alabama, but I'm fairly sure that was pretty much put down as SoonTM, and is something we can only just wait for at this point. In the mean time I'd be rather content with a Tier VIII Premium Destroyer, or Cruiser.

The Russians have the amazing Admiral Kutuzov, which is just all sorts of crazy good. The Japanese have the IJN Printing Press, other wise known as the Atago. Germany has the ever reliable Tirpitz and the somewhat meh Prinz Eugen's. And then you have good ol' 'Pan-asia', with the ever so redundant Lo Yang. That's atleast three different nation trees that got added to the game, and then received Tier VIII Premiums. The moment a US Tier VIII Premium anything goes on sale, it's gonna get bought up hella quickly.

Tier VIII is pretty much straight up the 'sweet spot' in this game, premiums at this tier make by far the most money, the experiance gain is nothing short of superb, and of course, since Tier VIII is generally the highest tier you'll get Premiums at, these ships become amazing Captain trainers.